Foreign Microwave Weapons and Their Development

- May 08, 2019 -

Henan Microwave Equipment Network News: Microwave is a kind of high-frequency electromagnetic wave, whose wavelength ranges from 1 mm to 1 m. Microwave beams can be assembled into narrow beams with strong directionality and high energy by special high gain antennas. They can travel along straight lines at the speed of light in the air, reaching instantaneously at a distance of tens of kilometers without time delay. Microwave weapons can interfere with the photoelectric equipment of the target at a long distance (usually tens of kilometers), kill the vital force at a short distance, detonate various charges or directly destroy the target. It is a kind of directional energy weapon with multiple killing effects of hard and soft, also known as radio frequency weapon.

Powerful microwaves converge in narrow beams and can be used to attack military satellites, intercontinental ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, aircraft, warships, tanks, C4I systems and radar, communication and computer equipment on the air, ground (sea) surface, especially command and communication hubs, operational liaison networks and other important information warfare nodes and parts, causing physical damage to targets and losing operations. Efficiency. The use of microwave weapons to suppress and destroy electronic equipment in weapon systems can achieve better results than the use of conventional lethal explosive bombs. The peak power of high frequency microwave weapon is usually over 100MW. It consists of microwave device, high frequency microwave generator, antenna device, electromagnetic wave directional transmitter and control system. As long as the target is in the high frequency coverage area, it will lose its combat effectiveness because of its attack. The power density of the electromagnetic pulse which can kill the target is 100W~1MW/m2. Therefore, when microwave is used as a weapon, it is required to achieve such a high power density beyond 0.1~1km from the radiation source.

According to the electromagnetic pulse effect of nuclear explosion, the nuclear weapon is reformed to convert more energy into electromagnetic pulse when it explodes. The microwave weapon developed on this principle belongs to the strategic microwave weapon. As an electronic warfare suppression weapon, it is used to suppress the electronic equipment of weapon system in the depth of strategy and campaign. The microwave weapon developed according to the laser effect and charged particle beam effect or the principle of converting chemical energy released during combustion of ordinary explosives, rocket propellants and hydrocarbon fuels into pulsed electric energy belongs to tactical microwave weapon. Taking 30 mm machine gun ammunition on aircraft as an example, it can be used to generate 10 kJ, 1 GW electric pulse. Its power density is 0.1 MW/m2 and energy density is 1 J/cm2. It can irradiate the ground target at 1 km ahead by antenna, and use repetitive launching to deal with the enemy's early warning, communication, command and control weapon system. Compared with laser and particle beam weapons, microwave weapons have much wider beam width, farther action distance, less climate impact, and only need to point to the target roughly. They do not need to track and aim the target as accurately as laser and particle beam weapons, which is convenient for fire control, thus making enemy countermeasures more difficult and complicated. The technical characteristics and operational application of

microwave weapon depend on the output power of microwave transmitter, the gain of antenna and the distance between target and microwave source. A gigawatt-level microwave emitter emitted by 40-50 dB high gain antenna can reach W/cm 2 radiation intensity at 10 km, which can kill people and equipment.

When the energy of electromagnetic wave is concentrated in narrow band with single frequency and the wavelength is mainly millimeter or centimeter, it is very destructive to unshielded or shielded electronic equipment with gaps. When the energy of electromagnetic wave is dispersed in a wide frequency band, the corresponding energy of any frequency is minimal. It is extremely disruptive and destructive to equipment with long cables. The killing effect of

microwave weapons is mainly embodied in the following three aspects:

1. The killing mechanism can be divided into "non-thermal effect" and "thermal effect". Non-thermal effects refer to the physiological disorders (such as irritability, headache, memory loss, nervous disorder and heart failure) of missile and radar operators, aircraft pilots, gunners and tank hands when microwave irradiation intensity is low. When the power density of microwave reaches 13 mW/cm2, the working state of weapon manipulators will change, which will lead to the failure of weapon system. Thermal effect refers to the burning of human skin, cataract, severe burns and death of skin tissue under high frequency microwave irradiation. When the power density of microwave is 0.5W/cm2 and the energy released by a single pulse reaches 20J/cm2, human skin will be slightly burned; when the power density is 20W/cm2, irradiation for 2S can cause three-degree burns; when the power density is 80W/cm2, only 1s can kill people. Another characteristic of

microwave weapon is that as long as the gap of the target is larger than the wavelength of microwave, it can enter into the interior of the target through these slots, and it can also enter the cockpit through bad conductors such as glass or fibers, killing the people inside.

2. Destroy electronic equipment in various weapon systems and make them lose operational effectiveness, also known as non-nuclear electromagnetic pulse effect. When the power density of microwave is 0.01-1 uW/cm2, it can interfere with the normal operation of radar, communication and navigation equipment in the corresponding frequency band; when the power density is 0.01-1 W/cm2, the electronic components in the detection system, C4I system and weapon system equipment can be invalidated or burned down; when the power density is 10-100 W/cm2, the transient electromagnetic field formed by high frequency microwave radiation can generate induced current on the metal surface through antennas and conductors. Wires, cables and various openings or slots are coupled to the interior of satellites, missiles, aircraft, warships, tanks, armored vehicles, destroying various sensitive components, such as sensors and electronic components, causing state reversal, breakdown, error codes, erasing of memory information and so on. Strong electromagnetic radiation will make the whole communication network out of control, because the high pulse power exceeds the rated value of sensitive components, equipment will be permanently damaged due to overload. If the microwave power radiated is strong enough, the opening and crevice of the equipment shell can be ionized and become a good conductor. When 103-104W/cm2, the target will be heated and destroyed in a very short time, and even the warhead or explosive in the missile can be detonated in advance.

P>3. Can attack stealth weapons. In addition to the unique aerodynamic shape design to reduce radar reflection, stealth weapons use absorbing materials to absorb the electromagnetic wave to be detected by radar. For example, the B-2 stealth bomber in the United States not only uses absorbing materials for the body, but also coats the body surface with absorbing coatings. The intensity and energy density of high frequency microwave are several orders of magnitude higher than that of radar microwave. The main lobe bandwidth of nanosecond pulse generated by high frequency microwave is thousands of megabits, which far exceeds the bandwidth of absorbing coating. Aerodynamic shape design and stealth effect of absorbing coatings are about 30dB, and the transmitting power of high frequency microwave source is enough to counteract this stealth effect. Light ones can destroy aircraft, heavy ones can even melt weapons immediately. High power microwave weapons can also destroy the guidance system of anti-radiation missiles and make them deviate from the course. The main shortcomings of microwave weapon are as follows:

1. When microwave propagates through the atmosphere, it is affected by electric breakdown, diffraction and attenuation. The degree of influence is related to the intensity, frequency, pulse width and air condition of microwave beam. Under normal atmospheric pressure, the power density of electric breakdown of air medium is 105-106 W/cm2, and the microwave pulse width is larger than several nanoseconds. Water vapor, oxygen and rain in the atmosphere can absorb microwave. When the microwave frequency is 22 GHz and 185 GHz, water vapor is absorbed, and oxygen is absorbed at 60 GHz and 118 GHz. There is attenuation near the above frequency in the action distance of tactical microwave weapon from 1 km to 100 km.

P>Even a well-calibrated microwave beam will diffuse with the increase of emission distance. Using high frequency and large diameter antenna can reduce this diffraction effect, so the general antenna is 10m for fixed transmitter and 3M for mobile transmitter.

P>2. Invalid for weapons and equipment with nuclear protection facilities. At present, weapons and military electronic systems in some countries in the world are equipped with facilities to prevent atomic damage, and military electronic design standards have been formulated. These facilities are also protective against microwave weapons, because metal sheets protect electronic equipment from thermal effects.

3. Because of the high power of microwave weapon, it may threaten and affect the electronic system and C3I system of the neighbouring troops in a certain range in operational use. It is necessary to use highly oriented antenna or ground shield. The key technology, development status and future development of

microwave weapon

microwave generator is used to transmit electromagnetic pulse of microwave beam, and microwave transmitter is used to convert the energy of electron beam or explosive chemical energy into the pulse energy of microwave beam. The high power microwave generator is shown in the table below. The microwave transmitter operates at frequencies ranging from 500MHz to tens of gigahertz and pulse width from 10ms to CW. Because the sensitivity of electronic equipments of different weapon systems is extremely high in different frequency bands, it is most ideal to make the transmitter of tactical microwave weapons broadband or adjustable in 10 octave range. The plasma assisted wave oscillator is an ideal broadband microwave source, and the virtual cathode oscillator is an ideal adjustable microwave source. Like radar, microwave beam can also be controlled by phase array. Its phases use multiple microwave power generators, which have fast response time, can emit high-energy pulses, and can deal with multiple targets.

EMP is easier to invalidate the electronic system than CW, and it is difficult for the enemy to locate the microwave weapon, so it is very difficult to take countermeasures. The power supply required to transmit EMP is different from that required to transmit CW. In the design of microwave weapon, besides high power microwave generator, pulse power supply is a difficult problem. Pulse power supply and ventilation cooling devices, especially their dimensions, should be suitable for vehicle, airborne and space combat platforms. According to the general theoretical calculation, assuming that the efficiency of microwave tube and microwave power supply is about 10%, for the fixed weapon system, the energy of high power microwave generator is 5-20MJ/pulse, and for the mobile weapon, it is 0.5-2MJ/pulse. If capacitance and inductance are used to store energy, the volume of fixed weapons is tens of cubic meters and mobile weapons are several cubic meters. Pulse power supply with this energy value has been applied in proton accelerator, electromagnetic pulse generator and slow nuclear fusion experiments. Sandy National Laboratory of the United States has developed a small explosive compression pulse power supply. Its basic principle is that the capacitor storing electric energy is charged by inductance, while the inductance is compressed by explosion, and the magnetic flux of the compressed inductance remains unchanged. As a result, a pulse current larger than the charging current is obtained in the inductance. The power supply can be made into various forms, which can convert 20% of the chemical energy in explosives into pulsed electric energy. It is suitable for high-power microwave rockets and microwave gravity bombs. Over the past 20 years, the United States and the former Soviet Union/Russia have been actively developing microwave weapons, focusing on the mechanism of microwave damage and destruction and high-power microwave radiation sources.

Some important development plans in the United States are included in the microwave development projects. In the development of high-power microwave technology, the United States is good at applying mature technology, that is, the first choice of low-power and medium-power microwave weapons, its power than the existing electronic jammer increased by three or six orders of magnitude. Medium-power microwave weapons with suitable high repetition frequency,

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